emissions map

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23 thoughts on “emissions map”

  1. MY first visit to Johor Baru was in 1978 when I was 15 years old.

    It was during the school holidays and I had just completed my Sijil Rendah Pelajaran (now known as Penilaian Menengah Rendah) examination.

    My late father had just bought a new Mazda car and announced that he was taking us down south to Singapore for a holiday.

    I do not know about my siblings Fauzi, Nasir and Amerul, but I was really excited because the furthest we had gone as a family was to Kuala Lumpur and to the east coast.

    In Johor Baru, we stayed at the Government Rest House for a few nights.

    The rest house was situated where the Thistle Hotel is now. It was a pleasant place to stay at because it overlooked the Straits of Johor.

    We went across the Causeway to Woodlands, Singapore, which was famous for canned lychee drinks. I remember my mother bought some kain ela, for making dresses, as it was cheap.

    I cannot recall all the sights in Johor Baru, but I left feeling it was a nice holiday spot, especially Pantai Liko where we had a picnic.

    But it certainly did not occur to me that I would one day be a “permanent resident” of Johor Baru.

    In 1990, my employer, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, relocated from Jalan Gurney (now Jalan Semarak), Kuala Lumpur, to its permanent campus in Skudai.

    Of course, being a bachelor, I had mixed feelings about moving from the big city of Kuala Lumpur to a quiet place like Skudai.

    Furthermore, it meant that I would be further away from my family in Alor Star, Kedah.

    I shared a house in Taman Universiti, Skudai, with a colleague.

    Taman Universiti, a small, recently developed township, only had a single lane road at the time. It has since been upgraded to a double carriageway.

    Skudai residents used to do their shopping at Taman Ungku Tun Aminah.

    Johor Baru has gone through tremendous changes in the last 20 years.

    This is obvious to anyone who exits the North-South Highway at the Skudai toll and experiences a smooth drive through Skudai, Tampoi, Larkin and on to Johor Baru city centre.

    In the old days, the traffic build-up was really annoying. There were so many traffic lights along Jalan Skudai.

    Like many people from other states, my colleagues and I found it both strange and amusing to see Johor people enjoying goreng pisang with soy sauce for tea.

    Even though Johor Baru was a small town, there were many interesting entertainment outlets. The famous live music joints included The M16 at Merlin Tower and Mechita Club at Straits Views.

    A club called Juwita in Jalan Serampang was a nice place to enjoy live music. I remember hanging out there with my colleagues and listening to famous singers of the 1960s such as Hasnah Harun and S. Jibeng.

    Satay Wak Radol in Kempas along the Pasir Gudang Highway was famous for its chunky and juicy satay.

    In 1993, I married my wife, Noor Khaida Wati Mohd Faiyudi. Of Javanese descent, she was born in Johor Baru. Her mother’s side of the family was from Stulang Darat, Johor Baru, and her father’s family was from Pontian.

    We rented a house in Jalan Tarom, Johor Baru, which is only a five-minute drive from the city centre.

    Once a week my wife and I, and a few close friends would go to the Mee Rebus Lan Janggut stall, at the Komtar Building car park in Jalan Tun Razak.

    Mee rebus Haji Wahid was famous, but we preferred to eat at Lan Janggut because of the keropok.

    The late Lan Janggut had learnt to make delicious mee rebus while working for Haji Wahid.

    He had his own way of preparing the noodles — using both hands, he would pour exactly the right amount of soy sauce and vinegar.

    Johor was unique at the time as the weekend for the public sector fell on Thursdays and Fridays, while banks and the private sector had their weekend on Saturdays and Sundays.

    I found it convenient as I could run errands and do my banking on Fridays.

    In the late 1990s, the state government changed the weekend for the public sector to Saturday and Sunday to be consistent with the practices of the Federal Government.

    My late mother-in-law’s favourite kopitiam was Huamui restaurant in Jalan Trus.

    It’s famed for Hainanese food, especially huamui mee (Hainanese noodle) and Western meals like grilled chicken chop and beef steak.

    I would say it was Johor Baru’s equivalent of the Coliseum Restaurant in Jalan Tuanku Abdul Rahman, Kuala Lumpur

    To this day, my wife and I sometimes have our breakfast of roti bakar and, chips and egg at Huamui on Sunday.

    Yong Nasi Padang, in Jalan Wong Ah Fook, was famous for its otak lembu masak lemak, which we would buy every time my parent in-laws visited us.

    If we wanted to eat Chinese food, we would visit the Straits View Gardens restaurant.

    This was before there was any development in Danga Bay. In those days, there was a live band at the open-air restaurant.

    During weekends, we would exercise at Kebun Bunga and Padang Istana Besar. We would complete the 5km jogging track and run up to the top of the hill where the Johor Military Force’s mini orchestra would be performing for the public.

    It has been 20 years since I moved to Johor Baru and I have to say it is better to live here than in Kuala Lumpur.

    My youngest brother Amerul Muner is also living in Johor Baru and married to a local girl.

    The only complaint that I have about Johor Baru is it is a bit far from my hometown Alor Star. If it were not for the distance, I would definitely say that Johor Baru is home.

    Mohd Khir Muhammad, 47, is the chairman of the Institution of Engineers Malaysia, Southern Branch. He stays in Bukit Jepun, Jalan Mariamah, with his wife.

    Interview by Jassmine Shadiqe

    Read more: Two wonderful decades in Johor Baru http://www.nst.com.my/nst/articles/08jpmkm/Article/#ixzz1CItR0YoK

  2. A young and pretty lady posted this on a popular forum:

    Title: What should I do to marry a rich guy?

    I’m going to be honest of what I’m going to say here. I’m 25 this year. I’m very pretty, have style and good taste. I wish to marry a guy with $500k annual salary or above. You might say that I’m greedy, but an annual salary of $1M is considered only as middle class in New York . My requirement is not high. Is there anyone in this forum who has an income of $500k annual salary? Are you all married? I wanted to ask: what should I do to marry rich persons like you? Among those I’ve dated, the richest is $250k annual income, and it seems that this is my upper limit. If someone is going to move into high cost residential area on the west of New York CityGarden(? ), $250k annual income is not enough.

    I’m here humbly to ask a few questions:
    1) Where do most rich bachelors hang out? (Please list down the names and addresses of bars, restaurant, and gym)
    2) Which age group should I target?
    3) Why most wives of the riches is only average-looking? I’ve met a few girls who doesn’t have looks & are not interesting, but they are able to marry rich guys
    4) How do you decide who can be your wife, & who can only be your girlfriend? (My target now is to get married)

    Ms. Pretty

    Awesome reply:
    Dear Ms. Pretty,

    I have read your post with great interest. Guess there are lots of girls out there who have similar questions like yours. Please allow me to analyze your situation as a professional investor. My annual income is more than $500k, which meets your requirement, so I hope everyone believes that I’m not wasting time here. From the standpoint of a business person, it is a bad decision to marry you. The answer is very simple, so let me explain. Put the details aside, what you’re trying to do is an exchange of “beauty” and “money”: Person A provides beauty, and Person B pays for it, fair and square. However, there’s a deadly problem here, your beauty will fade, but my money will not be gone without any good reason. The fact is, my income might increase from year to year, but you can’t be prettier year after year. Hence from the viewpoint of economics, I am an appreciation asset, and you are a depreciation asset. It’s not just normal depreciation, but exponential depreciation. If that is your only asset, your value will be much lower 10 years later.

    By the terms we use in Wall Street, every trading has a position, dating with you is also a “trading position”. If the trade value dropped we will sell it and it will not be a good idea to keep it for long term – same goes with the marriage that you wanted. It might be cruel to say this, but in order to make a wiser decision; any assets with great depreciation value will be sold or “leased”. Anyone with over $500k annual income is not a fool; we would only date you, but will not marry you. I would advise that you forget looking for any clues to marry a rich guy. And by the way, you could make yourself to become a rich person with a $500k annual income. This has better chance than finding a rich fool.

    Hope this reply helps. If you are interested in “leasing” services, do contact me…


    J.P. Morgan

  3. Nationwide, stormwater is a leading source of water pollution. About 13 percent of U.S. rivers, 18 percent of lakes and 32 percent of estuaries are classified as impaired by stormwater, which means they are rendered unsafe for swimming or fishing. It also contributes to the degradation of many more waterways.

    “You have marine impacts, ecosystem impacts, and public health impacts,” said David Beckman, co-director of the National Resource Defense Council’s national water program. “It’s really a multiplicity of problems. Pollutants in urban settings are many and of a wide variety, and all of them – if you don’t treat and successfully reduce the pollution – are getting into the receiving water, be it a river or lake or the ocean.”

    In a natural system, rainwater doesn’t travel very far. It soaks into the soil and is taken up by plants. The quick infiltration prevents the water from transporting contaminants and keeps waterways from eroding.

    But the concrete and asphalt of the urban jungle is anything but natural. Instead of soaking into the ground, rain runs across impervious surfaces, picking up contaminants along the way. By the time it reaches a stream or lake, the runoff can be full of metals, oil, grease, bacteria and other contaminants.

    Stormwater also picks up speed. When it hits a stream it scours sediment, dislodges benthic invertebrates and erodes banks, effectively demolishing the natural habitat.

    “When you put an impervious surface down it becomes a really good delivery system.” said Roger Bannerman, an environmental specialist with the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources. “We see that in the bottom sediments, we see it in the water quality itself, we see it in the kinds of chemicals we find in the fish.”

  4. (Silver Spring, Maryland) — The National Ready Mixed Concrete Association has selected speakers for the 2010 Concrete Sustainability Conference, scheduled for April 13-15 in Tempe, Arizona.

    The conference, sponsored by NRMCA and the School of Sustainable Engineering and The Built Environment at Arizona State University (ASU), will feature more than 50 speakers.

    Several prominent keynote speakers will present during the opening and closing general session. Dr. Paul Johnson, executive dean of the Ira A. Fulton School of Engineering, will present on how ASU has become one of the most sustainable universities in the U.S. Mark Wilhelm, principal of Green Ideas Environmental Building Consultants, will provide an update on the LEED Green Building Rating System. Wayne Trusty, president of Athena Institute, will present how life cycle assessment can measure environmental performance. Dr. Franz-Josef Ulm, George Macomber Professor in the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), will present work being done at the MIT Concrete Sustainability Hub to improve the efficiency of cement and concrete through nanotechnology.

    This fifth annual conference will provide learning and networking opportunities on the latest advances, technical knowledge, continuing research, tools and solutions for sustainable concrete manufacturing and construction. Examples of topics include Measuring Stormwater Quality Improvement through Pervious Concrete Paving. Recycling Carbon Dioxide into Concrete and The Influence of City Street Pavement Type on Fuel Consumption and Emissions. A complete list of topics and presenters is available at http://www.SustainabilityConf.org.

  5. Water supply is the process of self-provision or provision by third parties of water of various qualities to different users.

    In 2007, over 5 billion people worldwide (54% of the global population) had access to piped water supply through house connections. Another 1.3 billion (20%) had access to an improved water source through other means than house connections, including standpipes, “water kiosks”, protected springs and protected wells. Finally, more than 1 billion people (16%) did not have access to an improved water source, meaning that they have to revert to unprotected wells or springs, canals, lakes or rivers to fetch water. It should be noted that access to an improved source of water does not necessarily imply that it is safe to drink from that source. Waterworks is processed through filtration before distribution but there is a risk in contamination because pipelines might become too rusty.

    Water supply systems get water from a variety of locations, including groundwater (aquifers), surface water (lakes and rivers), conservation and the sea through desalination. The water is then, in most cases, purified, disinfected through chlorination and sometimes fluoridated. Treated water then either flows by gravity or is pumped to reservoirs, which can be elevated such as water towers or on the ground (for indicators related to the efficiency of drinking water distribution see non-revenue water). Once water is used, wastewater is typically discharged in a sewer system and treated in a wastewater treatment plant before being discharged into a river, lake or the sea or reused for landscaping, irrigation or industrial use.

  6. From everybody’s opinion, I gather the consensus that for this to work, it would have to done in places where there are enough law-abiding buyers/licensee of patents. Is that right?

    — For it to work, especially if you are using your own money to start building up your database of patents and IPs and leasing and selling them is not the immediate concern, ( You need deep pockets for this ), then your patents have to be worth something that someone even wants to consider to license or buy off you so that you can make money.

    I tend to agree with Robest’s earlier post that you can hold 100 patents, but if they ain’t worth crap, you’ll go bankrupt faster if you use your own money.

    To explain your comparison with the stock market, your company is worth ZERO in the first place esp if you use your own money and you bank it all on 1 or 2 patents. In order for a company to become publicly listed in Malaysia, in the Main Board, you need RM60million paid up capital and in 2nd Board, RM40million capital. Whichever way you want to explain the capital of the company, whether it is real or cooked accounts, it’s still RM40million and RM60million in the books. It’s proven that they at least have 60 to 70% of that money in real income earned over the last X number of years. The balance of the capital can be Bullshit injections of overpriced assets, but then, it’s still a lot of really earned income to contend with.

    Look around you and do a data search of all the patents held and owned by Malaysians. How many are own money to develop and earn the patent, and how many are Uncle MOF’s money ? Then how many are actually income deriving ( the dividend yield ). If you like the numbers and are confident, pls go ahead. But do lots of study into the industry first.

    Earlier, I said hard to do in Malaysia, it’s not because Malaysians are dishonest and you have to go to a country that there are lots of honest buyers/licensee of patents. If you patent is worth any good, you scared you cannot ACE the company and raise capital to patent worldwide ? Lots of VC will be knocking on your door to underwrite your RM10million capital raising exercise lah. I meant Malaysia hard to pull it off because it’s not in our personal culture to put in lots and lots of hours and have the stamina to go for it in the face of adversity. I know people, one day kena reject from Cradle, they give up, whine about it and then want to do something else and go to Cradle for $$ assistance again. I think the trick is to stick to the same game plan and keep applying and making effort to pester and convince the Cradle guys why you are worth a shot at. I finally got a Cradle grant for totally small amount and I’m willing to even underwrite the whole exercise without the grant. And this is the 4th time of concientious pestering and asking the necessary “whys”. I’m proud and happy because I am the primary applicant and this is a product development of something I’ve been doing for the last 10 years. In another company, where I am the secondary applicant, we got a fairly decent amount of Cradle Grant and it was in the first try. It’s all about showing zeal and tenacity. Malaysians have very low levels of that IMO otherwise we’d have hit Wawasan 2020 years ago. But that’s my opinion lah

  7. A new book, The Wealth of Nature, has been launched in London by global building materials company CEMEX and the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). The book, which has also been developed in association with Conservation International, The Wild Foundation and International League of Conservation Photographers, outlines the views of leading scientists about nature’s ecological services and demonstrates how they contribute to our health, economic prosperity, and cultural values.

    The book makes an important contribution to The International Year of Biodiversity with its more than 20 essays from renowned conservation scientists illustrated by images from leading photographers, by putting the spotlight on how unsustainable economic growth has put a burden on nature’s capacity to deliver clean water, fresh air, medicines and climate regulation, among other benefits. Assigning a financial value to them is the key to mend some of the environmental impact of human activities.

    The Wealth of Nature was presented to Members of Parliament, civil servants, community partners, environmentalists and commercial guests at a Parliamentary House of Lords reception, which was hosted by Baroness Gibson of Market Rasen OBE.

    Head of the IUCN Ecosystem Management Programme and co-author of the book, Dr Neville Ash said: “We now recognise that the climate is changing, posing new challenges and threats to nature. Conserving biodiversity will play a key role in our ability to adapt to these changes.

    “Nature provides services that are essential to sustain all life on the planet. These services must be valued according to the multiple benefits that they provide to people, and those communities who work to protect them should be supported to do so. Placing a financial value on the services that nature provides is critical to guarantee that ecosystems stay healthy and continue to provide the benefits that all people depend on to survive.”

    As one of the world’s largest producers of aggregates, cement and readymixed concrete products, CEMEX is committed to sustainable development. From 1993, the company has, in partnership with not for profit organisations, published a new book every year to put the spotlight on a number of different conservation issues. ‘The Wealth of Nature’ is the latest book, and the 17th in this series.

    President of CEMEX UK, Gonzalo Galindo, said: “For more than a decade we have been partnering with the leading organisations to publish the CEMEX Conservation Book Series to help raise awareness of the necessity to preserve our natural world. We strongly believe that protecting ecosystems are a fundamental aspect of sustainable development. It has a direct impact on the quality of people’s lives all over the world and it is essential for the sustainability of every human activity, including business.

    “In the UK, CEMEX has also entered into a partnership with the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds to develop our biodiversity strategy, which will be launched later this year. We think partnerships between conservation bodies, like IUCN and the RSPB, and a commercial company like ours are important and the way forward.”

  8. Future of Biomass
    Detailed Analysis of Biomass Technologies and Concepts

    Biomass has always been an important source of energy for mankind and today it accounts for 10% of primary energy consumption. Most of this is traditional fuels used for cooking and heating in the developing world. In the developed world until the end of the last century its use was mainly restricted to niche applications such as combined heat and power generation in the wood and paper industries. Today the perception of biomass is changing and it is being recognized once more as a valuable modern fuel that can provide a renewable energy to replace fossil fuel in power generation. As a consequence its use is growing at it is set to become one of the major renewable sources over then next two decades.

    Biomass consists of all the plant material on the surface of the earth (and in the seas if algae are included). Almost two thirds of the total is regenerated each year during seasonal growth. The total regenerated is probably equivalent to more than three times total global energy consumption in 2008. Around 3% of this is used each year, mostly in the form of wood.

    Key features of this report

    – Analysis of biomass technologies concepts and components.

    – Clarification of the market for biomass and future growth.

    – Assessment of new renewable energy technology analysis including innovation, infrastructure investment.

    – Insight relating to the most innovative product launches and potential areas of opportunity for manufacturers.

    – Examination of the key technology introductions and innovations.

    Scope of this report

    – Achieve a quick and comprehensive understanding of how biomass market trends and infrastructure are influencing the development of the renewable energy market.

    – Realize up to date competitive intelligence through a comprehensive review of biomass technology concepts in the recent electricity infrastructure and renewable energy market.

    – Assess the emerging trends in renewable energy technology biomass grid connection and energy distribution.

    Key Market Issues

    Environmental requirements: The growth of carbon dioxide emissions globally are creating a path for lower carbon emitting power generation technologies. Biomass as fuel is carbon neutral since while it releases carbon into the atmosphere when burnt, the growth of new biomass absorbs the same amount carbon from the atmosphere. As a consequence it offers a valuable renewable source of energy.

    Legislative issues: The use of biomass as an energy source raises a number of environmental and legislative issues. One of the most difficult is that of maintaining a balance between land for the production of energy crops and land for producing food. Additional questions arise when waste materials are used to produce energy. Agricultural wastes are a valuable fuel source but part of each crop must be returned to the land if soil quality is not to deteriorate. A significant part of municipal waste can be burnt too but some of it is better recycled. Additionally, the combustion of biomass produces a number of potential pollutants in addition to releasing carbon dioxide and these must normally be controlled.

    Key findings from this report

    In 2005 biomass provided around 1.3% of total global electricity production. By 2050 this could rise to between 3.4% and 5.8% of total electricity production.

    By definition, biomass comprises all the plant life on the surface of the earth. In its 2001 Survey of Energy Resources, the World Energy Council put the total biomass on the surface of the earth at 220bn oven dry tonnes, equivalent to 4,500EJ of energy. This definition may require modifying if algae become a major source of biomass energy since algae grow in water.

    Actual usage today is around 50EJ, or 10% of the estimated 500EJ of total global energy consumption in 2008. This is roughly 77% of the total renewable contribution (including hydropower) to primary energy consumption.

    Key questions answered

    – What are the drivers shaping and influencing new technology development in the electricity industry?

    – How will renewable energy technologies be connected and integrated into the existing grid network?

    – What is the biomass power generation system going to cost?

    – What are the components of the biomass power generation system?

    – Which biomass types will be the winners and which the losers?

    View Full Details: http://EnergyBusinessReports.com/shop/item.asp?itemid=2879&affillink=c

  9. The majority of mortar used in construction today is preblended dry mortar, designed to meet the requirements of ASTM C270, Specification for Mortar for Unit Masonry. However, certain aspects of using preblended dry mortar are not covered by ASTM C270. Now, a new standard developed by ASTM International Committee C12 on Mortars and Grouts for Unit Masonry addresses specific issues related to preblended dry mortar.

    The standard, ASTM C1714/C1714M, Specification for Preblended Dry Mortar Mix for Unit Masonry, is under the jurisdiction of Subcommittee C12.03 on Specifications for Mortars.

    According to Jeffrey Thompson, quality control manager, dry mix plant, Mutual-Target LLC, and a member of Committee C12, preblended dry mortar offers the ability to directly compare the test results from mortar mix sampled at the manufacturing facility to mortar mix sampled at the job site.

    “The preblended mortar mix is delivered to the jobsite dry and therefore can be sampled dry and taken back to the lab to be tested alongside mortar sampled from the plant, using the exact same laboratory test methods,” says Thompson. “On the other hand, with mortars batched at the job site, where the sand already contains moisture, the mortar mix is wet as soon as the sand is added, which starts the mortar setting process and therefore requires different test methods.”

    There are five main components to ASTM C1714: traceability of mortar mix ingredients; ingredient blending consistency; testing frequency; allowance of additives based on performance; and dryness of all included ingredients.

    In addition, ASTM C1714 provides guidance on the use of admixtures that is specific to preblended dry mortar and not included in ASTM C270 or ASTM C1384, Specification for Admixtures for Masonry Mortars.

    “ASTM C1714 provides a solid foundation for specifying preblended mortar and serves the needs of the industry well,” says Thompson, who also notes that all interested parties are invited to participate in ongoing revisions to the standard and in other standards developing activities of Committee C12.

    To purchase ASTM standards, visit http://www.astm.org and search by the standard designation number, or contact ASTM Customer Relations (phone: 610-832-9585; service@astm.org). ASTM International welcomes and encourages participation in the development of its standards. For more information on becoming an ASTM member, visit http://www.astm.org/JOIN.

  10. KUALA LUMPUR: The Ministry of Domestic Trade, Cooperatives and Consumerism
    is reviewing all intellectual property (IP)-related Acts, including the
    Copyright Act 1987.

    This is to ensure Malaysia’s IP regime is up to date and the review is being
    undertaken through the Intellectual Property Corporation of Malaysia

    Its Deputy Minister Datuk Tan Lian Hoe, in commenting on the amendment to
    the Copyright Act, said the ministry was also addressing various issues
    related to it.

    She explained, the amendment is in support of the nation’s innovation
    agenda, including the development of the creative industry.

    It also includes balancing the rights of authors, performers and public
    policy, the powers of the copyright tribunal, internet and technological
    development related issues and wide ranging exceptions as well as
    limitations for private and educational purposes.

    “In amending the Act, the views of legal experts, academic scholars, the
    copyright industry and other stakeholders, are being given a listening ear,”
    she said.

    She also disclosed, an amendment to the Copyright Act 1987 is expected to be
    tabled at the next Cabinet meeting, in March.

    Tan had earlier opened a follow-up of the Advanced Course on Copyright and
    Related Rights, here.

    “The creative industry, facilitated by the copyright regime, is a powerful
    engine for economic growth in Malaysia. So, there is a need to have an Act
    that in line with the changes in the global IP landscape,” she added.

    MYIPO Director General Kamel Mohamad said the creative industry in the
    country is still robust, despite the currenct economic uncertainties, based
    on the keen interest shown by local firms in registering their IPs.

    “We can see an increasing awareness. More firms, especially the small and
    medium enterprises, have realised the economic potential of their IPs,” he

    Kamel said in 2009, the MYIPO had received more than 8,000 trade mark
    applications, an increase of two per cent compared to the previous year.

    Meanwhile for patents, about 1,234 applications were received last year,
    compared to 864 in 2008. – Bernama

  11. Energy Efficient Buildings – Concepts of Energy Efficiency in Building Design

    This report on Energy Efficient Buildings examines the concepts of energy efficiency in both commercial and residential building designs.

    Efficient energy use means simply using less energy to provide the same level of service. An example would be insulating a building to use less heating and cooling energy to achieve the same temperature. Another example is installing fluorescent lights and/or skylights instead of incandescent lights to attain the same level of illumination. Efficient energy use is achieved primarily by means of a more efficient technology or process rather than by changes in individual behavior.

    A building’s location and surroundings play a key role in regulating its temperature and illumination. For example, trees, landscaping, and hills can provide shade and block wind. In cooler climates, designing buildings with an east-west orientation to increase the number of south-facing windows minimizes energy use, by maximizing passive solar heating. Tight building design, including energy-efficient windows, well-sealed doors, and additional thermal insulation of walls, basement slabs, and foundations can reduce heat loss by 25 to 50%.

    Modern building practices often demonstrate little regard for energy efficiency or the larger economic, environmental or social impacts of the built environment. Green building attempts to break with these practices. Early efforts to bring change to the building sector in the 1960s through the 1980s generally focused on single issues such as energy efficiency and conservation of natural resources. Green building now integrates a wide range of building design, construction, and operation and maintenance practices to provide healthier living and working environments and minimize environmental impacts. Crucial to the success of green building has been the application of integrated design principles, a whole-building-systems approach, which brings together the key stakeholders and design professionals as a core team to work collaboratively from the early planning stages through to the building’s occupation.

  12. In the 1990s, Ahmed Khan’s company in Bangalore, India, churned out hundreds of thousands of plastic bags and other packaging material each month that eventually ended up as garbage. Now, he is in the business of scouring the city’s landfills and trash cans to reclaim some of that waste and pave the way to a more environmentally friendly enterprise.

    Mr. Khan, 60, is trying to solve two of the biggest problems in India: battered roads and overflowing landfills. His solution: streets made with recycled plastic.

    Mr. Khan’s company, K.K. Plastic Waste Management, which he founded with his brother, Rasool Khan, has built more than 1,200 kilometers, or 745 miles, of roads using 3,500 tons of plastic waste, primarily in Bangalore, India’s technology and outsourcing hub.

    Mixing plastic with asphalt, Mr. Khan forms a compound called polymerized bitumen. When used in roads, it withstands monsoons and everyday wear and tear better than traditional pavement.

    “Typically, our roads have a life of three to four years under ideal conditions, but the plastic has increased that by at least another year or two,” said Sunil Bose, head of the Flexible Pavement Division at the Indian Central Road Research Institute, a government agency.

    Building a road with a mix of plastic costs about 3 percent more than constructing a conventional road, but Mr. Khan said that in the long run such roads cost less because repair and repaving expenses are much lower.

    Mr. Bose said more pilot projects would be undertaken to meet standards in states around the country over the next six months under the supervision of his institute, which approved the technology in 2004 after years of testing.

    Polymerized bitumen is not a new compound and has been used for paving in places other than India. But typically the bitumen is mixed with new plastic, making it an expensive venture that has no environmental benefits. Mr. Khan’s innovation uses waste plastic, including bottles and food packaging.

    India was not a big user of plastic until the mid-1980s, when the government sanctioned increases in the national production of plastic to help industries become globally competitive. The use of plastic was also stimulated by the movement of more people to cities and importing of more foreign goods.

    India, which traditionally recycled a lot of its garbage, was not prepared to handle the increase in plastic waste, including discarded bags, which some experts say can take as long as 1,000 years to decompose.

    In 2005, after monsoon rains flooded Mumbai, plastic bags were blamed for clogging the underground drainage system and intensifying the effect of the floods. In areas frequented by tourists, like Goa, heavy consumption of bottled water has resulted in trash on beaches, creating eyesores and endangering marine life.

    Even India’s cows, considered sacred, have not been spared. After 3,000 cows died in Lucknow in 2000, the city investigated and found plastic bags in their stomachs. Apparently the bags had been ingested as the animals grazed at dump sites.

    Several state governments have banned plastic bags in recent years, although Bangalore has not.

    Mr. Khan said he had never set out to be an environmental entrepreneur, but after an anti-plastics movement gained strength in the mid-1990s, he decided that environmentalists had a valid argument and started to worry about his business. From 1998 to 2000, he and his brother developed their technology, testing it on more than 600 potholes in Jayanagar, an upscale neighborhood in Bangalore.

    Convinced that they had made a breakthrough, they approached Bangalore University and later the road institute for research and support. Several years and many more road tests later, they were given their first contract by the Bangalore municipal government to pave 40 kilometers of roads.

    The Khans’ business spread to other cities and states, and although they patented the plasticized pavement in India, other companies are copying the technology. The Khans said they had decided not to object.

    With a ban on plastic bags being enforced in the Indian capital and the Indian High Court asking the government to explore new ways of using plastics, the New Delhi municipal government is showing interest as well. The road institute is working with the Public Works Department in New Delhi to start a project in the city using the technology.

    The plastic in Mr. Khan’s roads is collected by garbage collectors, who form the backbone of the Indian recycling industry. These workers collect trash from homes and offices and sort through it for material that can be sold to specialized middlemen, who sell it to recycling companies. Typically, an average garbage collector is paid less than a dollar a day, making as much as 8 rupees, or 17 cents, a kilogram, or 2.2 pounds, depending on the quality of the plastic. But Mr. Khan offers them 8 to 10 rupees a kilogram, ensuring a steady supply. With the help of the Bangalore government, he is also setting up collection points in residential areas.

    Of the 35 tons of plastic waste generated by Bangalore each day, Mr. Khan said he was already using three to five tons daily on the roads.

    The plastic waste is churned into flakes, then combined at a ratio of eight tons of plastic to every 100 tons of bitumen. For every kilometer of single-lane road, about two tons of plastic is needed.

    Five years after the laying of Mr. Khan’s first plastic-mix pavement, the roads seem to be surviving. Mr. Khan attributes this to the plastic’s tendency to act as a binding agent, thereby increasing the ability of bitumen to hold together at higher temperatures. And since plastic is water-resistant, the roads do not get waterlogged, have fewer potholes and need repairs less frequently than conventional roads.

    Not everyone is enthusiastic. Despite interest from Sheila Dikshit, chief minister of Delhi, only two kilometers of such pavement have been laid in the Indian capital, and that was five years ago. Local news reports suggest that senior officials have not allowed proposals to go further because contracts for regular maintenance of roads are a big business in India, worth 350 billion rupees a year. Not only would some businesses lose money, but government officials who take kickbacks could also lose, the reports have said.

    The information officer for the chief minister’s office, who goes by a single name, Satpal, said, “We’re always going to say there’s no corruption.”

    Ms. Dikshit’s office did not respond to other written questions and follow-up phone calls.

    Mr. Bose, however, said the slow pace of growth was the result of officials’ desire to be cautious about adopting any new technology too rapidly, lest unforeseen problems arise.

    “We have to be careful that adulteration does not begin,” he said, referring to the practice of mixing other substances with plastic.

    Some environmentalists are also skeptical. “The focus really has to be on reduction of plastics rather than finding ways to get rid of it,” said Bharati Chaturvedi, director of Chintan, a nongovernment environmental research and action group based in New Delhi. “Technology is no solution to policy and public action.”

    Mr. Khan said he was frustrated by the sluggish pace of adoption.

    “The government has to take initiative and make it mandatory, if it is to have any effect,” said Mr. Khan, who spent about $325,000 to finance the initial research and testing.

    His goal has always been to make a profit, he said. He declined to discuss the financial state of his company but said the cost of the technology and the limited acceptance had made it difficult. Unless local public works departments and the National Highway Authority incorporate bitumen modified with waste plastic into their requirements for road specifications, he said, the technology would remain a novelty.

    As for the idea that the focus must be solely on reducing plastic consumption, Mr. Khan said it was impractical to imagine a world without plastic. He said he preferred to think about eco-friendly ways of disposal.

    “We have to start looking at plastic as raw material rather than waste,” he said.


  13. By Kathy Keatley Garvey

    The day-biting mosquito Aedes aegypti takes a blood meal and then rests in a dark place before heading for water to deposit her eggs. Her eggs will develop into larvae, pupae and adults – adults capable of transmitting the killer disease, dengue.

    But maybe not – this is thanks to a six-member team led by British researcher Gregor Devine, a team that includes epidemiologist and dengue mosquito researcher Amy Morrison of the University of California.

    Unbeknown to the mosquito, a deadly insecticide in her resting place will kill her future generations. Her resting area contains a cloth impregnated with a powdered larval insecticide, which will stick to her body when she buzzes off to an aquatic habitat to lay her eggs. There the larvicide will kill not only her offspring but other immature mosquitoes at this and other breeding sites.

    Dengue mosquito researcher Amy Morrison of the University of California did field work in the Amazon city of Iquitos, Peru, where she has studied dengue since 1999. Photo by Steve Stoddard

    That’s the gist behind the research, “Using Adult Mosquitoes to Transfer Insecticides to Aedes aegypti Larval Habitats,” published the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

    Devine, with Rothamsted Research, Hertfordshire, United Kingdom, and Morrison, with the UC Mosquito Research Laboratory, directed by Thomas Scott of the UC Davis Department of Entomology, have been working together on a variety of field experiments on mosquitoes, including the use of adult mosquitoes to kill their young via a larvicide.

    “A major barrier to mosquito control for dengue has been treating all of the infested containers,” says Scott. “This is a creative way to exploit the ecology of the system by using the mosquitoes themselves to treat all containers, including the ones that are most difficult for humans to find. This is an exciting new development with important public health implications.”

    Some 2.5 to 3 billion people, primarily in tropical and sub-tropical countries, are at risk to dengue, caused by any one of four closely related viruses known as nicknamed “break bone fever,” classic dengue is characterized by high fever, headaches, muscle and joint pain, nausea, vomiting and a rash.

    Some 50 to 100 million cases of debilitating dengue fever occur annually. The most severe form of the disease, dengue haemorrhagic fever, strikes half a million a year, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Some 22,000 die of DHF.

    The field work took place in the Amazon city of Iquitos, Peru, where Morrison has studied dengue since 1999. Iquitos, endemic to dengue, is the most populous city in the world that cannot be reached by road.

    The researchers placed the insecticide, a juvenile hormone analogue, at dissemination stations in a cemetery in Iquitos. Although they placed the JHA in just 3 to 5% of a resting area, that placement resulted in a 42 to 98% reduction of emergent adult mosquitoes at each breeding site.

    The JHA used was pyriproxyfen, which the authors say “does not interfere with the fundamental behaviors (of mosquitoes) that we are exploiting because it is neither lethal nor repellent to adults.”

    “It is the act of egg-laying that contaminants the aquatic habitat, so the technique explicitly and precisely targets the mosquitoes’ preferred breeding sites,” the authors wrote. “This process may help overcome one of the most important constraints on the successful application of larvicidal or pupacidal interventions; the inefficient waste of expense insecticides and human resources on treating inappropriate or cryptic oviposition sites.”

    Permalink: http://www.californiafarmer.com/story.aspx?s=24958&c=9

  14. Greenhouse Gases Emissions Trading is emerging as a key instrument in the drive to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The rationale behind emission trading is to ensure that the emission reductions take place where the cost of the reduction is lowest thus lowering the overall costs of combating climate change.

    Emissions trading is particularly suited to the emissions of greenhouse gases, the gases responsible for global warming, which have the same effect wherever they are emitted. This allows the Government to regulate the amount of emissions produced in aggregate by setting the overall cap for the scheme but gives companies the flexibility of determining how and where the emissions reductions will be achieved. By allowing participants the flexibility to trade allowances the overall emissions reductions are achieved in the most cost-effective way possible.

    Participating companies are allocated allowances, each allowance representing a ton of the relevant emission, in this case carbon dioxide equivalent. Emissions trading allows companies to emit in excess of their allocation of allowances by purchasing allowances from the market. Similarly, a company that emits less than its allocation of allowances can sell its surplus allowances. In contrast to regulation which imposes emission limit values on particular facilities, emissions trading gives companies the flexibility to meet emission reduction targets according to their own strategy; for example by reducing emissions on site or by buying allowances from other companies who have excess allowances. The environmental outcome is not affected because the amount of allowances allocated is fixed.

    The case for a tradable entitlements system is based on the advantages that it would offer over other politically feasible alternatives. In the short term, it offers the possibility of reaching the environmental goals at a lower cost than would be possible if each country were limited to reduction options within its own borders. Making it easier to reach the goals may encourage more countries to sign the Protocol and would probably increase compliance with those goals. Because it separates the issue of who pays for control from who implements control, it facilitates trans-boundary cost- sharing, an item of particular importance to both the developing countries and the transition economies of Eastern Europe.

    This 150+-page report on GHG Emissions Credit Trading covers all the practical details of emission trading. Covering the basics of the industry to understanding the industry in-depth, the report looks at monitoring issues, issues with the Kyoto Protocol, the various emission-trading projects, and much more. It is a complete guide to GHG Emissions Credit Trading.

  15. Intelligent Grid Developments, Key Costs and Outlook

    Intelligent Grid and Renewable Integration

    View Report Details

    The modernization of electricity supply networks is overdue, with current systems becoming increasingly overloaded and having their limitations exposed. The most powerful way of upgrading the existing structure is by combining electricity supply with modern computer and communications technology to create an ‘intelligent grid’ of superior flexiblity and resilience. The integration of renewable energy technologies into the intelligent grid will define the electricity supply systems of the future.

    ‘The Intelligent Grid and Renewable Integration’ examines the development prospects and future potential of an intelligent grid with integrated renewable forms of electricity production. This report identifies the key components and structural concepts that comprise the grid and analyzes the platforms that will form the basis of the intelligent distribution network. This report also explores how market trends and infrastructure are influencing the development of renewable energy technologies, and identifies how renewable energy sources will be integrated into the intelligent grid. It also provides cost estimates for intelligent grid infrastructure development and compares how manufacturers are positioning new technologies in response to recent trends.

    Key Findings

    Creating an intelligent grid is likely to be extremely expensive. The cost of converting and upgrading the US grid into an intelligent grid has been put at $100bn to $165bn over 20 years.

    In terms of overnight costs of renewable technologies and fuel cells – onshore wind is cheapest at $1,797/kW in the US, though this is still much more expensive than the cheapest base load technology – combined cycle gas turbine with an installed overnight cost of $917/kW.

    In the UK, installing advanced meters in every household would probably cost $50 – $100 per household. Equipping each of those 24.7m with an intelligent meter would thus cost $1.2-$2.4bn. That would be the minimum necessary to launch an intelligent grid in the country.

    In the European Union, countries are expected to need to invest M750bn over three decades in the electricity infrastructure, with roughly half of this for transmission and distribution. Within the latter, around U90bn will be invested in the transmission system and $300bn in distribution systems.

    Use this report to:

    – Assess the potential of the intelligent grid and analyse its key concepts and components with this report’s analysis of fundamental technologies and features including an advanced metering infrastructure, visualization technology and phasor measurement units.

    – Evaluate the opportunities and challenges associated with intelligent grid distribution systems by using this report’s analysis of concepts including micro grids, DC micro grids, virtual power plants and power parks.

    – Identify the renewable technologies that will contribute generating capacity to the new grid, understand which technological features will constitute essential criteria for distributed generation systems and understand how renewable technologies will be effectively integrated.

    – Quantify the cost and volume growth potential of infrastructure development and renewable energy generation/ distribution and examine the main drivers and resistors of the intelligent grid and renewable integration.

    Explore issues including:

    Environmental requirements. The growth of carbon dioxide emissions globally are creating a path for lower carbon emitting power generation technologies. Recent capacity investment of wind turbines and solar photovoltaic installations is intermittent, remote from the grid and unpredictable. These distributed technologies required a more advanced grid network.

    Energy efficiency. The current electrical infrastructure experiences substantial energy loss between the stages of generation, transmission and load delivery. A more efficient system is required to take advantage of the intermittent supply nature of wind and solar power – and balance these with conventional thermal generation, geothermal, hydroelectric and nuclear power.

    The growth of new component markets. New technologies that utilize new energy distribution methods including:- smart meters for end user energy monitoring, HVDC cables used in long distance transmission, super conductive cabling to allow enormous volumes of energy to be transmitted, Plug-in Hybrid vehicles that can be utilized by the grid to provide power as well as draw it.


    – What drivers are shaping new infrastructure development in the electricity industry?

    – How will renewable energy technologies be integrated into the existing grid network?

    – What are the expected costs involved in realising the intelligent grid system?

    – What are the components of the intelligent grid system?

    – Which types of renewable energy will be most influential in the intelligent grid system?

    – Which renewable technologies will be most utilized by manufacturers in the future?

    – Which emerging technologies are gaining popularity and why?

  16. Using one fuel to produce two beneficial work outputs is cogeneration. In small-scale cogeneration, the two work outputs are usually electricity and hot water and the single fuel input is generally natural gas. The waste heat from the engine is channeled through heat exchangers to heat water that would normally have been heated by a separate hot water heater.

    Because cogeneration produces two usable energy sources from a single fuel, it operates more efficiently than other sources of energy. Consequently, it saves money. In fact, cogeneration turns up to 90% of the fuel burned into usable energy. That compares with just 52% of the fuel burned in most local power plants or in a typical hot water heater. That difference in efficiency can save beaucoup bucks.

    Returns on investment of capital range from 25 to 50% when cogeneration is properly applied to a facility – be it a home, commercial operation or an industry. Not only are economics involved in using cogeneration, but there are environmental and conservational benefits, too. Fifty-six percent less fuel burned will create 56% less pollutants in the atmosphere. Fifty-six percent less fuel burned will be 56% more fuel available for future generations of energy users.

    A wide variety of commercial and industrial businesses are using cogeneration to cut costs and conserve energy and the environment:
    • Fitness centers are a natural for cogeneration because of the hot water they use in spas, swimming pools and showers.
    • Wastewater treatment plants use cogeneration by burning a combination of biogas and natural gas to generate electricity and hot water.
    • Municipalities use cogeneration to heat swimming pools and air condition associated meeting and fitness centers.
    • Food processors use cogeneration to cook and pasteurize their products while generating electricity for internal consumption.
    • Casinos are using cogeneration in conjunction with absorber-chillers to cool and electrify their facilities.
    • Hotels use cogeneration for guest room hot water, laundry hot water, kitchen hot water as well as heating their pools and spas while generating a percentage of their electrical needs.
    • Hospitals are cogenerating for heating therapy pools to over 90 degrees, sterilizing operating instruments, and general hot water needs while making most of their electrical needs.

    The typical cogeneration system is no bigger than an executive desk, and just about as quiet, too. Placed on site, it ties in with the existing hot water heating system and electrical distribution system to provide the facility with the first line in heating water and electrifying the facility.

    Despite its myriad advantages, cogeneration is not appropriate for every application. First, it must be determined that there is a need for the products of cogeneration. Electricity is almost a given as it would be hard to envision any facility that does not use electricity. The other product, i.e. hot water, steam, or air conditioning, requires some additional analysis. Cogeneration is most appropriate in situations where abundant hot water, steam or AC is required.

    The 124-page report examines cogeneration in detail and explores numerous factors such as the technical and mechanical principles underlying cogeneration, the growth drivers for this technology, the global market appetite, barriers and issues, and key players in the industry. The report also cites many detailed case studies.

  17. (Australia) — Swiss cement giant Holcim, fresh from its $2 billion takeover of Cemex Australia, is bullish about its prospects in Australia, but remains critical of the Federal Government’s proposed emissions trading scheme.

    The new company, trading as Holcim Australia, also includes a 25 per cent increase in Cement Australia, in which Holcim already owns a 50 per cent stake.

    Holcim’s chief executive, Markus Akermann, speaking in Melbourne, said the $2.02 billion acquisition gave Holcim a commanding presence in Australia’s cement, aggregates (crushed stone, gravel and sand) and ready-mix concrete market.

    Cemex Australia had sales of $1.86 billion in 2008 and employs about 2800 people, while Cement Australia had sales of $995 million in the same year and has 1300 employees. ”Australia is a growing mature market with high population growth,” he told BusinessDay.
    However, Mr Akermann said Australia’s proposed carbon pollution reduction scheme (CPRS), like the existing European emissions trading scheme, had flaws that disadvantaged the cement industry.

    Both schemes were based on clinker, not cement. Elaborating, Mr Akermann said clinker was produced by burning limestone, a process that created carbon dioxide emissions. The clinker was then ground with other products to make cement.

    However, cement could be made with variable amounts of clinker. ”If you reduce clinker in the cement you can drive down CO2 emissions,” he said. ”If the baseline is clinker, there is no incentive to innovate so that the product has less clinker.”

    By using cement as the base for emissions trading, different mineral components such as ash or alternative fuels could be used to lessen the amount of clinker and thus CO2 emissions.

    With clinker as the benchmark, Mr Akermann said, it was cheaper and easier to import clinker from China. ”There is no obligation for China clinker producers to reduce CO2 emissions,” he said. This clearly distorted trade and disadvantaged Australian producers. It also ended up creating a net increase in carbon dioxide due to higher Chinese emissions and a greater use of shipping to import clinker from China.

    Mr Akermann said this situation created uncertainty about future decisions to build new cement capacity in Australia. ”It is a very capital intensive industry,” he said, and to be economic, plants were increasingly bigger. ”New cement capacity will be needed in Australia by 2011 or 2012.”

    Mr Akermann said the European and Australian schemes also did not recognise the emissions reductions that Holcim had already made voluntarily. In 2000, Holcim had pledged a 20 per cent cut in emissions by 2010 from the 1990 baseline and was on track to achieve that. ”This is not taken into consideration and is a basic flaw of the ETS [emissions trading scheme] in Europe and Australia,” he said.

    Holcim, founded in Switzerland in 1912, has 80,000 employees in 70 countries.

    By: Philip Hopkins

  18. Ah Beng bought a new mobile phone.

    He sent a message to everyone from his Phone Book & said,

    “My Mobile No. has changed. Earlier it was Nokia 3310. Now it is 6610”

    Ah Beng: I am a Proud, coz my son is in Medical College.

    Friend: Really, what is he studying ?

    Ah Beng: No, he is not studying, they are studying him.

    Ah Beng: Doctor, in my dreams, I play football every night.

    Dr: Take this tablet, you will be OK.

    Ah Beng: Can I take it tomorrow? Tonight is final game.

    Ah Beng: If I die, will you remarry?

    Wife: No! I’ll stay with my sister. But if I die will you remarry?

    Ah Beng: No, I’ll also stay with your sister.

    Ah Beng: People consider me a “GOD”

    Wife: How do you know??

    Ah Beng: When I went to the Park today, everybody said,
    “Oh GOD! You have come again.”

    Ah Beng complained to the police: “Sir, all items are missing, except the TV in my house.”

    Police: “How come the thief did not take the TV?”

    Ah Beng: “I was watching TV news…”

    Ah Beng came back to his car & found a note saying “Parking Fine”

    He wrote a note and stuck it to a pole “Thanks for the compliments.”

    How do you recognize Ah Beng in School?

    He is the one who erases the notes from the book when the teacher erases the board.

    Once when Ah Beng was walking he had a glove on one hand and not on the other.

    A man asked him why he did so. He replied that the weather forecast announced that on the one hand it would be cold and on the other hand it would be hot.

    Ah Beng was in a bar when his cellular phone rang. He picked it up and said, “Hello. Yes I am Ah Beng. How did you know I was here?”

    Ah Beng: Why are all these people running?

    Man: This is a race. The winner will get the cup.

    Ah Beng:- If only the winner will get the cup, why are the others running?

    Teacher: Convert this sentence “I killed a person” to the future tense

    Ah Beng: The future tense is “You will go to jail”.

    Ah Beng told his servant: “Go and water the plants!”

    Servant: “It’s already raining.”

    Ah Beng: “So what? Take an umbrella and go.”

    A man asked Ah Beng why Ahmad Badawi goes walking in the Evening and not in the morning. Ah Beng replied: Ahmad Badawi is PM not AM

  19. The Admixture Systems business of BASF Construction Chemicals announced today that it has developed an advanced concrete optimization service that results in new levels of performance, profitability and sustainability. Successfully piloted over the last two years with more than 100 concrete producers, Green Sense Concrete technology utilizes BASF’s mixture proportioning expertise to determine the optimal combination of recycled materials and tailor-made chemical admixtures needed to improve the desired slump, setting characteristics, strength, and durability of concrete.

    “Green Sense Concrete technology is the result of extensive global research in material science through which our scientists have analyzed the properties of hundreds of regionally available cements, supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) and fillers,” said Mark Bury, Green Sense Concrete Product Manager, BASF. “We now have a broad knowledge of the behavior of these materials and how they will interact with one another. Using that information, in combination with Glenium® high-range water-reducing admixtures and our new, patent-pending, first-of-its-kind RheoTEC™ Z-60 workability-retaining admixture, we can optimize the proportions that are needed to produce high performing, economical concrete with the least environmental impact.”

    With Green Sense Concrete, concrete producers will realize improved slump retention, faster truck discharge and better fleet utilization. Likewise, contractors will benefit from reduced construction time, improved placeability, and reduced labor costs. Green Sense Concrete technology helps reduce shrinkage, lowers crack potential, and exhibits the improved strength and durability associated with quality concrete.

    In addition, because Green Sense Concrete technology incorporates SCMs and fillers, it may contribute to earning LEED credits in the Innovation and Design and Materials and Resources categories.

    “For 100 years, BASF’s experts in chemistry and material science have worked to produce innovative chemical admixtures that make concrete better for producers, contractors, engineers and owners alike,” Bury said. “Now, with Green Sense Concrete technology, we’re going a step further for our customers, helping formulate mixes that provide environmental and economic efficiencies.”

    Green Sense Concrete is part of the BASF Construction Chemicals portfolio of environmentally preferable and sustainable technologies, many of which can be considered for LEED credits. For more information on Green Sense or to learn about BASF’s sustainable admixture products, visit http://www.basf-admixtures.com/GreenSense.

    BASF’s Construction Chemicals division is the leading supplier of chemical systems and formulations for the construction industry. Continuous innovation and tailor-made solutions ensure its customers are more successful. Its Admixture Systems business unit specifically helps customers in the ready-mix, precast, manufactured concrete and underground construction industries. The Construction Systems unit offers a wide range of products for sports and industrial flooring, external renders and wall insulation, expansion joints, wood preservatives as well as specialist repair mortars, tile adhesives and waterproofing membranes. The division operates production sites and sales centers in more than 50 countries and achieved sales of €2.2 billion with approximately 7,700 employees in 2008.

    BASF Corporation, headquartered in Florham Park, New Jersey, is the North American affiliate of BASF SE, Ludwigshafen, Germany. BASF has more than 15,000 employees in North America, and had sales of approximately $17.5 billion in 2008. For more information about BASF’s North American operations, or to sign up to receive news releases by e-mail, visit http://www.basf.com/usa.

    BASF is the world’s leading chemical company: The Chemical Company. Its portfolio ranges from chemicals, plastics and performance products to agricultural products, fine chemicals as well as oil and gas. As a reliable partner BASF helps its customers in virtually all industries to be more successful. With its high-value products and intelligent solutions, BASF plays an important role in finding answers to global challenges such as climate protection, energy efficiency, nutrition and mobility. BASF has approximately 97,000 employees and posted sales of more than €62 billion in 2008. BASF shares are traded on the stock exchanges in Frankfurt (BAS), London (BFA) and Zurich (AN). Further information on BASF is available on the Internet at http://www.basf.com.

  20. This research report examines the emerging solar cell technologies, such as plasmonic solar cells, quantum dots solar cells, photoelectric solar cells, and many more. Due to the advancements made in technology, we see new types of solar cells being invented on a regular basis now, and this report is a complete guide on understanding all the new types of solar cells that have recently hit the markets.

    Solar photovoltaic cells are made of materials called semiconductors such as silicon, which is currently used most commonly. When light strikes the cell, a certain portion of it is absorbed within the semiconductor material. This means that the energy of the absorbed light is transferred to the semiconductor. The energy knocks electrons loose, allowing them to flow freely.

    PV cells also all have one or more electric field that acts to force electrons freed by light absorption to flow in a certain direction. This flow of electrons is a current, and by placing metal contacts on the top and bottom of the PV cell, we can draw that current off for external use, say, to power a calculator. This current, together with the cell’s voltage (which is a result of its built-in electric field or fields), defines the power (or wattage) that the solar cell can produce.

  21. MONTERREY, MEXICO AND THORPE, UK) — CEMEX, S.A.B. de C.V. (NYSE: CX), has announced that its United Kingdom operation (CEMEX UK) is the first cement company in the world to provide certified carbon labels for its cement using the Carbon Trust’s Carbon Reduction Label, demonstrating the company’s commitment to reduce the environmental impact of its cement.

    The carbon label will show the amount of CO2 generated by CEMEX cements in the UK, which is determined, among other factors, by product composition. The carbon footprint is measured by the amount of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases (CO2e) generated by its cement from cradle to grave, including the extraction of the raw materials, to manufacturing, distribution, use by customers and disposal at the end of life.

    The carbon footprint is certified to the PAS2050 which is the first international standard for companies to measure their carbon footprint of products and services. Its development was overseen by an independent steering group, made up of NGOs, academics, business and government representatives.

    The carbon labelling comes on the back of the announcement this week that CEMEX UK’s cement division has also been certified to the Building Research Establishment (BRE) Framework Standard for the Responsible Sourcing of Construction Products – BES6001 with a score of ‘Very Good’. CEMEX is among the first in the industry to meet the standard, which covers all of the company’s three UK cement plants, in Rugby (Warwickshire), South Ferriby (North Lincolnshire) and Tilbury (Essex).

    The certification, which is part of CEMEX’s efforts to meet the requirements of the UK Government’s Strategy for Sustainable Construction, affirms that all cement supplied by CEMEX UK is responsibly sourced, to an independently verified standard that addresses the social, economic and environmental impacts across the entire supply chain.

    To meet the standard, CEMEX’s cement products were assessed in accordance to quality, organisational governance, supply chain management and environmental and social impact. The certification also allows for traceability of the product to ensure all areas within the supply chain are operating to high standards.

    CEMEX UK’S director of sustainability, Andy Spencer, explained: “The carbon labelling demonstrates the progress and commitment we have made in reducing the carbon associated with our manufacturing process, particularly around the replacement of fossil fuels with alternative waste fuels, and the blending of our cements with by-products from other industries to minimise raw materials use”.

    “The label combined with the responsible sourcing certification, and our recent innovative solutions, such as electronic point of delivery to save paper and a pallet retrieval scheme to save wood waste, mean that our customers now have the power to make informed green choices. They should have confidence that our production and supply chains are operating ethically and responsibly. It also supports the building product supply chain to score more credits under the materials section of the Code for Sustainable Homes and BREEAM, which is the most widely used environmental assessment method for buildings.”

    Euan Murray, Head of Carbon Footprinting at the Carbon Trust said: “People are increasingly interested in the carbon impact of the products they buy. The challenge for businesses, such as CEMEX, is to get meaningful information to them, so they can begin to make informed low carbon choices. The Carbon Reduction Label is designed to help customers quickly identify the brands that have measured their footprint and are committed to carbon reduction. We hope more companies will follow the example of CEMEX and adopt the Carbon Reduction Label.”

    The carbon labelled cements are being introduced to customers during April and May, and as part of the label conditions, CEMEX is committed to further reducing carbon over the next two years. CEMEX UK is also extending the Responsible Sourcing certification to its entire business over the coming months.

    About Cemex
    CEMEX is a global building materials company that provides high-quality products and reliable service to customers and communities in more than 50 countries throughout the world. CEMEX has a rich history of improving the well-being of those it serves through its efforts to pursue innovative industry solutions and efficiency advancements, and to promote a sustainable future. In the UK, CEMEX also has a significant share of the asphalt, concrete block and mortar markets. The company has a national supply network in the UK with over 500 locations, to ensure that quality building materials is available to customers locally. For more information, see For more information, visit http://www.cemex.com or http://www.cemex.co.uk

    About The Carbon Trust
    The Carbon Trust is an independent company set up in 2001 by the UK Government in response to the threat of climate change, to accelerate the move to a low carbon economy by working with organisations to reduce carbon emissions and develop commercial low carbon technologies.
    For more information, see http://www.carbontrust.co.uk

    About Carbon Reduction Label
    The Carbon Reduction Label: Since 2007, the Carbon Trust has worked with more than 65 brands and 5,000 individual product lines to measure and reduce the carbon footprint of many everyday household items. Many of these brands now carry the Carbon Reduction Label on their packaging to show consumers they are committed to reducing their impact on the environment. The Carbon Trust designed the Carbon Reduction Label to help companies communicate the impact of their product carbon footprinting work to consumers. Companies that display the Carbon Trust’s Carbon Reduction Label (on pack, online or elsewhere) are making a commitment to reduce the carbon footprint of their product or service. For more information see http://www.carbon-label.com

    About BRE
    BRE, which provides research and testing services for all aspects of the built environment, launched the BES6001 standard in 2008, to provide a level playing field for the sustainability of construction products and provide recognition for suppliers embracing genuine sustainability. For more information, see http://www.bre.co.uk

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